Iskremen har kommet en lang vei til dit den er i dag. Men hvordan startet det hele?
Persia ca. 1880. street ice cream seller
Ancient History – And Myths
Much of what is written about the history of ice cream begins centuries ago…and it’s the stuff of legends. It has been said that the claims of Nero (1st century A.D.) and the ancient Chinese (via Marco Polo) enjoying an “ice-cream-like dessert”. These desserts, while frozen, are not ice cream, as we know it, but more like sorbet or probably a sno-cone! Nero would have servants run to the mountains for fresh snow, and then race back (before it melted) to his palace where he would enjoy the frozen treats topped with fresh fruits. Again, it’s not the dairy treat we enjoy today, and further – it was something only royalty enjoyed (not everyone could have servants sent to the mountains).
Over a thousand years later, Marco Polo returned to Italy from the Far East with a recipe that closely resembled what is now called sherbet. Historians estimate that this recipe evolved into ice cream sometime in the 16th century. England seems to have discovered ice cream at the same time, or perhaps even earlier than the Italians. “Cream Ice,” as it was called, appeared regularly at the table of Charles I during the 17th century. France was introduced to similar frozen desserts in 1553 by the Italian Catherine de Medici when she became the wife of Henry II of France. It wasn’t until 1660 that ice cream was made available to the general public. The Sicilian Procopio introduced a recipe blending milk, cream, butter and eggs at Café Procope, the first café in Paris.
The Ice Cream As We Know It
Ice cream as a dairy delight was probably “discovered” in the 1600’s. The concept of flavored ices evolved, but no one is sure how. We do know that Charles I of England, or rather, his chef (either French or Italian), made ice cream a staple of the royal table. Depending on which version you read, either the chef had a secret recipe for ice cream and the king paid him a handsome reward to keep it a secret, or the chef was threatened with death if he divulged the recipe. Either way, once King Charles 1 was beheaded in 1649, the chef let out the secret. Soon nobility in Europe knew of, and enjoyed, “crème ice.”
Ice Cream Comes To The Colonies
The “iced creams” for the rich were widely known in the 18th century on both sides of the Atlantic. Several recipes appear in a 1700 French cookbook, “L’Art de Faire des Glaces”. Thomas Jefferson one of the Us presidents had a recipe for Vanilla ice cream, George Washington paid almost $200 (a chunk of money then) for a specific recipe, and James and Dolley Madison served ice cream at their second inaugural ball. Still, ice cream was limited in quantity and popularity, due to the enormous effort needed to make it (think two large bowls, lots of ice and salt, and 40 minutes of shaking one bowl while stirring the other).
Mass Production – Finally, Ice Cream To The People!
The hand crank might have been fine for backyard picnics, but no one considered ice cream making as an industry – until Jacob Fussell in 1851. The milk dealer was looking for a way to keep a steady demand for his cream. He discovered that he could do so by turning it into ice cream – and he could get twice the price! His Baltimore factory utilized icehouses and a larger version of Johnson’s machine, and by the start of the Civil War he had additional ice cream plants in New York, Washington, and Boston. Ice cream still didn’t become a widespread phenomenon until the 20th century, when advances in refrigeration and power allowed for the dramatic increase in production.
The Ice Cream Cone?
There are many claimes around 1890-1900 as whom made invented the cone, But seriously Italo Marciony (also spelled Marchioni and Marcioni)– who claimed he created the ice cream cone on September 22, 1896! He sold his cones from a pushcart in New York City, and his claim may be the best, since he had a patent for a waffle mold, granted in December, 1903.
From Pushcart to Inventor – Italo Marciony
Italo Marciony emigrated to the United States in the late 1800s,. He began his business selling his homemade lemon ice from a single pushcart on Wall Street, but his business quickly grew into many carts.
Although he was successful he still had a small problem that was causing him to lose money. At the time, most ice cream from vendors was sold in serving glasses called “penny licks” (because you’d lick the ice cream from the glass, and it cost a penny to do so). There was a major problem with sanitation (or the lack thereof), but Marciony’s problem was that many people would accidentally break the glasses, or not so accidentally walk off with them. His first solution was to make cone-like containers out of paper which worked fine until he was hit with a stroke of genius. He came up with the idea of making an edible container for his cool treat. So in 1896 he began baking edible waffle cups with sloping sides and a flat bottom – shaped like his serving glass – and it was an instant hit.
On September 22, 1903, he filed a patent application and Patent was issued to him on December 15, 1903.
But aside with those who give the credit to Marciony, because his patented design was FIRST, and it resembled the “packaging” of ice cream as it was known then (the penny lick glass). Hamwi improved upon this design, but the concept of ice cream in an edible container belongs to Marciony. Hence, in my view (and a few others), he is the father of the Ice Cream Cone.
Originally Eskimo Pie was called the “I-Scream-Bar” The idea for the Eskimo Pie ® bar was created by Chris Nelson an ice cream shop owner in Onawa, Iowa. He thought up the idea in the spring of 1920, after he saw a young customer called Douglas Ressenden having difficulty choosing between ordering an ice cream sandwich and a chocolate bar. Nelson created the solution, a chocolate covered ice cream bar. The first Eskimo Pie chocolate covered ice cream bar on a stick was created in 1934.
Reuben Mattus invented Haagen-Dazs in 1960, he choose the name because it sounded Danish.
Water ices are said to have been eaten throughout Asia for thousands of years. In addition, iced dairy products have been cited in ancient Chinese literature as early as the 12th century. Traders and adventurers such as the 13th century bard and adventurer, Marco Polo, brought recipes for water ices to Europe from the Far East. When Catherine de Medici married Henry II and became Queen of France in 1533, she brought with her recipes for Italian sherbet. It is said that her son, Henry III, enjoyed these delicacies and consumed them daily.
In the mid-1600s, the use of a combination of ice and salt (to depress the freezing point) became common practice in the production of frozen ices. In 1660, the Cafe Procope was founded in Paris by an Italian named Coltelli. There, water ices and possiblycream ices were manufactured and dispensed.
How ice cream is made
The basic mix for the manufacture of ice cream is cream and other milk ingredients, plus sweeteners. The ingredients of the mix are carefully blended in proper proportions in a mixing tank. The mix may also contain small amounts of functional ingredients, such as a stabilizer, which prevents the formation of ice crystals in the ice cream after it is frozen.
The mix then goes to a pasteurizer where it is heated and held at a predetermined temperature for a specific period of time. The most common type of pasteurization is the high-temperature-short-time method in which the mix is heated to 175° F / 85° C and is held for 5 seconds.
The hot mix then goes to the homogenizer where, under pressure of 2,000 to 2,500 pounds per square inch, the milk fat globules are broken into still smaller particles to help make the ice cream smooth.
After homogenization, the hot mix is quickly cooled to a temperature of about 40° F / 5° C. Next, freezing of the mix is accomplished by one of two methods: a “continuous freezer” which uses a steady flow of mix; or a “batch freezer” which makes a single quantity of ice cream at a time.
While the ice cream is being frozen, blades in the freezer, or “dashers” as they are commonly called, whip and aerate the products. Without this aeration, the finished product would be an inedible, solidly frozen mass of cream, milk, sugar and flavoring. In all states, this aeration, called “overrun,” is controlled by requiring that finished ice cream shall weigh not less than 4.5 pounds per gallon containing at least 1.6 pounds of total food solids.
With the use of the continuous freezer, ingredients such as fruits and nuts are added after the freezing by a mechanical flavor feeder. Liquid flavors are added to the mix prior to freezing.
The filling operation begins with filling large containers, paper cups, or molds for ice cream on a stick.
After the freezing and filling, ice cream goes to the “hardening room” where sub-zero temperatures further harden the ice cream. From the hardening room, it is loaded into refrigerated trucks for delivery to distributors or retailers.